Lent Resources

Fasting & Abstinence Guidelines

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Why do we fast?

Seven Reasons in Tradition

According to Father Daniel Merz, associate director of the U.S. bishops' Secretariat of Divine Worship, Christian tradition can name at least seven reasons to fast. They are:

1. From the beginning, God commanded some fasting, and sin entered into the world because Adam and Eve broke the fast.

2. For the Christian, fasting is ultimately about fasting from sin.

3. Fasting reveals our dependence on God and not the resources of this world.

4. Fasting is an ancient way of preparing for the Eucharist — the truest of foods.

5. Fasting is preparation for baptism — and all the sacraments — for the reception of grace.

6. Fasting is a means of saving resources to give to the poor.

7. Fasting is a means of self-discipline, chastity and the restraining of the appetites.

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Fasting: The goal is a transformed heart

The Monastery of the Temptation (above) was built on the Mount of Temptation, which is the hill in the Judaean Desert that tradition holds is the place where Jesus was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:8) when he fasted for 40 days in the desert.

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Lent reflects the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert fasting and praying before his public ministry began. While Moses (Exodus 34:28) fasted to prepare for God's revelation, Jesus took it a step further by doing the practice out of love.

"Jesus' mission to announce and bring the kingdom of God begins with a complete and total self-gift to the Father, in love, through fasting," according to Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia. For Christians, "fasting is not only a bodily expression of our need for God; the practice itself is a pathway which can lead us to the reality of God's kingdom."

Cackie Upchurch, director of Little Rock Scripture Study, said fasting is an ancient custom that can be found in almost all religious traditions. In the time of the Old Testament, the Jewish people regularly fasted from food and drink, but they did so for different reasons. "It was not about a devotional practice. It was really about petitioning, or praying for repentance, or sorrow."

If the external act of fasting does not reflect "something internal in us" then it is not what God wants.

Tearing one's garment and putting on sackcloth and ashes while fasting was common. King David did this to repent and petition for the life of his son. But when the baby died, he stopped (2 Samuel 12:16-23). According the Law of the Israelites, which is spelled out in the books of Leviticus and Numbers, the only place fasting was an act of worship was on the Day of Atonement, which continues today, Upchurch said.

In the New Testament, fasting is rarely mentioned, but when it is, it's usually about how not to do it. But that does not mean it wasn't practiced. During Jesus' Sermon on the Mount he said when fasting "do not look gloomy like the hypocrites. They neglect their appearance, so that they may appear to others to be fasting. ... But when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, so that you may not appear to be fasting, except to your Father who is hidden" (Matt 6:16-18).

So the presumption is "that of course you're going to be fasting." The important thing is "you do it from the heart," Upchurch said. "Jesus doesn't want a typically religious practice just to be taken for granted. He wanted them to understand the purpose of it. He really is critical of the fasting practices that had become just generally rote."

She called his teaching a "kind of evolution in Scripture." Jesus confirmed what the prophets Micah, Hosea and Isaiah said while speaking for God in saying the kind of fasting he desired. "'The sacrifice I desire from you is that you rend your hearts and that you serve the poor and walk humbly with God,'" Upchurch said, summing up the prophets' instruction.

If the external act of fasting does not reflect "something internal in us" then it is not what God wants. In the Catholic faith, people fast out of repentance or petition, but ultimately, the goal is to "draws us closer in a more regular way to the heart of God," Upchurch said.

This excerpt came from "Fasting out of love: God doesn't want a fulfilled obligation, he wants our hearts," Arkansas Catholic, Feb. 21, 2009. Reprinted with permission. Copyright Diocese of Little Rock. All rights reserved. This article may be copied or redistributed with acknowledgement and permission of the publisher.

How do we fast?

Fasting Guidelines


1. Ash Wednesday and Good Friday are days of fast and abstinence.


2. The law of fasting allows one full meal and two smaller ones. The law of fasting obliges all between the ages of 18-59.


3. The law of abstinence prohibits the eating of meat. The Fridays of Lent are days of abstinence in the United States. The obligation of abstinence begins at age 14.


4. The rule of abstinence from meat includes all flesh and organs from mammals and fowl. This also includes soups and gravies made from them. Current practice in the Church is guided by the document "Paenitemini," given in 1966 by Pope Paul VI. In previous documents the question of soups and gravies was spoken of specifically. In "Paenitemini" the question is not specifically included. That has led to some discussion of the issue in Catholic circles.


5. For the practice in the Diocese of Little Rock, Bishop Anthony B. Taylor has interpreted the practice to include abstaining from soups and gravies made from meat. By-products such as eggs and cheese are permitted. Fish and other cold-blooded animals have traditionally been the acceptable substitutes on days of abstinence. Pastors and parents are to see to it that minors, though not bound by the law of fast and abstinence, are educated in the authentic sense of penance and encouraged to do acts of penance suitable to their age.

Lent Resources

Fasting & Abstinence Guidelines

I Phone Fast

Why do we fast?

Seven Reasons in Tradition

According to Father Daniel Merz, associate director of the U.S. bishops' Secretariat of Divine Worship, Christian tradition can name at least seven reasons to fast. They are:

1. From the beginning, God commanded some fasting, and sin entered into the world because Adam and Eve broke the fast.

2. For the Christian, fasting is ultimately about fasting from sin.

3. Fasting reveals our dependence on God and not the resources of this world.

4. Fasting is an ancient way of preparing for the Eucharist — the truest of foods.

5. Fasting is preparation for baptism — and all the sacraments — for the reception of grace.

6. Fasting is a means of saving resources to give to the poor.

7. Fasting is a means of self-discipline, chastity and the restraining of the appetites.